Commonly Used Terms & Calculation Methods

Hob RPM

Depending upon the cutting speed requirement, RPM can be calculated by the following formula.


HOB MOUNTING ERRORS

SHARPENING ERRORS & GUIDELINES

Effect of Sharpening Errors on Gear Profile

  • Positive rake angle produces Gear Tip plus (minus pressure angle)
  • Negative rake angle produces Gear Tip minus (plus pressure angle)
  • Convex rake angle produces thinner gear teeth on the middle of the profile
  • Indexing error produces irregular profiles.

HOB DAMAGE ANALYSIS

Hobbing Method Comparison

Climb CuttingConventional Cutting
Quick hob wearHob wearLess hob wear
Prolonged commaBasic shape of chipShorter comma
LowerCutting speedHigher
GoodHob performancePoor
NoBacklashYes
RegularTable feedJumpy
PoorComponent profileGood
LowerProductivityHigher
PreferredHelical Gear
Large GearsGear TypeSmaller Gears
PoorGear FinishGood
AvoidedCNC Hobbing M/CRecommended

Shaving Methods & Characteristics

Shaving Methods – Every shaving method differs according to the direction of the movement given to the cutter. The choice of method depends on the workpiece shape, machine characteristics, and volume of production.

Cross Axis Angle – The difference in the helix angle of the gear and the cutter is calculated along the PCD.
Cross axis angle is an essential condition for the shaving process.

Conventional ShavingDiagonal ShavingUnderpass ShavingPlunge Shaving
Pictorial View & movement of Shaving method
Gear and the cutter, are moved parallel to the work piece axes.The relative motion between cutter and gear takes place with an angle included in the range 5° to 45° w.r.t the gear axis.Cutter feed in movement towards the gear is perpendicular to gear axis.Cutter feed in movement towards the gear is radial to gear axis.
Where to be usedSuitable for low and medium production operations.Suitable for medium & high production operations.Suitable for high production operations.Suitable for high production operations.
Suitable for open gearsSuitable for open gears.Suitable for shoulder type gears with cross axis angle limitation.Used for open and shoulder type gears.
Large width gears can be shaved.Gear Face width is limited to 100mm as component face width should be necessarily more than cutter face width.Max. Gear face width is limited to 55mm as cutter face width is more than component face width.Max. Gear face width is limited to 55mm as cutter face width is more than component face width.
Shaving timeStroke length is longStroke length is relatively short.Shaving stroke is extremely short.No longitudinal movement of cutter.
Very long Shaving timeShaving time is relatively shortShaving time is very short.Shaving time is least.
Cutter UtilizationThe cutter works only with a limited contact area at the center of teeth.Better use of the cutter that can exploit all its length.Cutter works progressively and partially along the whole face width.

 

Cutter works progressively and partially along the whole face width.

 

Guidelines for better resultsLength of traverse should be 1/16” greater than face width of the component.Sum of Traverse Angle & Cross Axis Angle should not be more than 55°.It can be used with shoulder gears with minimum cross axis angle of 3°.Radial in-feed should be carefully selected.
γ = Cross of Axes Angle, ε = Diagonal Angle, L1 = Shaving Cutter Tooth Length, L2 = Gear Tooth Length, L = Stroke Length
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